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Anatomy of The Eye


Human eyes may be small, but they will provide us with the most important of our senses called vision.

WHAT MAKES UP AN EYE:

  • Cornea: A transparent spherical membrane in front of eyeball. It will refract the light which enters the eye, onto the lens, and then it will focus it onto the retina. The cornea has no blood vessels but it has plenty of nerves which make it extremely sensitive to the pain.
  • Sclera: Sclera is a white part of the eye, a tough covering, which with the cornea, forms external protective coat of the eye.
  • Conjunctiva: It is a transparent membrane that covers the white or the sclera of the eye.
  • Iris: This is circular muscle which forms the coloured, visible part of eye in front of the lens. It regulates the amount of the light which enters the eye. Light enters by a central opening known as the pupil.
    • Pupil: It is a circular opening in centre of the iris by which light will passes into the eye. The iris controls the size of the pupil.
    • Lens: A transparent structure that is situated behind the pupil.  It will be enclosed in a thin transparent capsule. The lens also helps to refract the incoming light & focus it on to the retina.
    • Choroid: It is a middle layer of eye in between the retina & the sclera.
  • Ciliary body: The part of eye that connects the choroid to the iris.
  • Retina: It is a light sensitive layer & lines the interior part of the eye. It is comprises of the light sensitive cells known as rods & cones. The human eye comprises of about 125 million rods, which are essential for seeing in the dim light. Cones are required for seeing in the bright light & also for distinguishing the colors.
    • Macula: It is also known as the “yellow spot” on the retina. It surrounds the fovea. Together they will form the “focusing center” of the retina
  • Fovea: It forms a small notch at center of the macula & is the area with the greatest concentration of cone cells. When the eye is directed to a particular object, the part of that image which will be focus on fovea is the image most precisely registered by the brain.
  • Optic disc: The visible portion of the optic nerve, which are found on the retina. The optic disc is the starting point of the optic nerve. The messages from cone & rod cells will leave the eye by the optic nerve fibers to the optic centre of brain. The optic disc is also known as the 'blind spot’.
  • Optic nerve: It leaves the eye at optic disc and  transfers all the visual information to the brain.

Authored by Dr.S Tony Fernandez

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